Mil Mi-28 Havoc is a modern combat helicopter able to destroy armoured and unarmoured combat material, low and slow flying airborne vehicles and other battlefield targets. The helicopter design is based on the conventional pod and boom configuration with a tail rotor. The design of this helicopter is similar to well-known older battle helicopter Mi-24 Hind, which is used in many countries of East Europe incl. Czech Republic. The pilot and the navigator/systems officer are accommodated in two separate cockpits in tandem configuration under individual canopies. The fuselage of the Mi-28 has a bay fitted with a hatch door. The bay can accommodate three people for the rescue of downed friendly air crew. The helicopter has non-retractable tricycle tailwheel type landing gear. The energy absorbing landing gear and energy absorbing seats protect the crew in a crash landing or in a low-altitude vertical fall. The crew are able to survive a vertical fall up to 12 metres per second. When the helicopters altitude allows parachute operation, the crew can bail out in an emergency. If the choice is made to bail out then it is possible to jettison the wings and cabin doors in order to remove any obstruction which could otherwise be caused by the protruding parts of the helicopter.
The helicopter can be operated autonomously for long periods from poorly prepared pads in the forward area of operations.The helicopter's construction makes it suitable for transportation by aircraft to the theatre of operations with minimum stripping and rapid reassembly.
The helicopter can fly at a maximum speed of 300 km/hour, can fly rearwards and sideways at speeds up to 100 km/hour and is able to hover turn at 45 degrees per second. This highly manoeuvrable helicopter is able to demonstrate aerial stunts such as loops and snap-rolls.
In August 1996 the Moscow Helicopter Plant rolled out a first prototype of the day and night capable version of the helicopter, the Mi-28N Night Havoc. The Night Havoc helicopter first flew in November 1996 and the test procedures are scheduled for completion during 1999.
The surveillance and fire control system developed for the Mi-28N has the wide and narrow field optical channels together with an optical television and night vision infrared channel.
The Night Havoc helicopter retains most of the structural design of the Mi-28. The main difference is the installation of an integrated electronic combat system. Other modifications include the main gearbox for transmitting higher power to the rotor; new design of high efficiency blades with swept- shaped tips; an engine fuel injection control system for high power operating modes.
The main sensors of the integrated electronic combat system are the microwave radar antenna mounted above the rotor head and a FLIR (forward looking infrared) system.. The helicopter is able to hover under cover with just the radar head looking over trees, buildings or high ground. The integrated combat system uses onboard processing to display the helicopter location on a moving map indicator, and to show the flight, systems and target information on the cockpit liquid crystal displays. The crew are equipped with night vision goggles. The pilots are able to perform nap of the earth flight missions in day or night conditions and in adverse weather.
The g-loading of the Mi-28N exceeds 3g and a range of acrobatic manoeuvres including a vertical loop have been demonstrated in public.
The development of this helicopter had started in the end of 70's according to specifications annonced by Soviet Ministry of Defense like the best competitor had started development of Ka-50.
The crew have two compartments separated with armoured partitioning, the pilot seated in the higher rear compartment and the navigator/systems officer in the front compartment. The Mi-28 has a fully armoured cabin including the windshield which withstands impact by 7.62 and 12.7 mm bullets and 20 mm shell fragments. It is equipped with state of the art sighting and observation, pilot, navigation and communications systems.
The cockpit is designed specifically to minimise the workload on the pilot particularly during low altitude flight and combat missions:
The Mi-28A helicopter is powered by two TV3-117VMA turboshaft engines. The power plant is fitted with deflectors and separators to prevent dust ingestion in air intakes to protect the engines from wear when taking off from unprepared pads. The engines are fitted on either side of the fuselage to enhance the combat survivability.The helicopter is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) for self- contained operation.
The fuel tanks are filled with polyurethane foam in order to reduce the risk of explosion. In the event that the fuel tanks sustain damage, any rupture holes in the tanks are healed by latex in the self- healing covers. The fuel feed system in the helicopter's powerplant operates under vacuum, which prevents the helicopter being flooded with fuel and being vulnerable to fire if the pipelines are damaged in combat.
The thermal signature of the helicopter has been reduced by a factor of 2.5x compared to its predecessor, the Mi-24 helicopter. The engine has exhaust mixer boxes over the exhaust ducts and thermal screening to provide protection against heat seeking missiles.
If the helicopter transmission gearboxes sustain damage for example by a missile fragment penetrating the gearbox casing, the gearbox will operate for 30 minutes without oil.
The main rotor head of the Mi-28 has elastomeric bearings and the main rotor blades are made from composite materials. The tail rotor is designed on a biplane configuration with independently controlled X-shaped blades. The turnable stabilizer is fitted asymmetrically on the end of a tailboom. In real combat missions the single rotor design allows the helicopter to continue flight and land with damaged main rotor blades or damaged anti-torque blades in the majority of cases.
A new design of rotor blade, all plastic with swept shaped tips has been installed on the Night Havoc Mi-28N helicopter. The new all plastic blades can sustain hits from 30 mm shells.
The crew has two members. The pilot in the second of the tandem cabins flies the helicopter and uses the unguided weapons. When a high priority target is detected, the pilot uses a helmet mounted target designator which allocates the target to the navigator's surveillance and fire control system. The navigator/weapons officer in the forward cockpit is then able to deploy guided weapons or a movable gun against the target. The targeting system follows the direction of the pilot's eyes. The navigator can seek out and identify targets using the movable surveillance and fire control unit mounted on a gyrostabilised platform. The navigator can then deploy guided missiles and the helicopters fast moving gun against the targets.
The Mi-28A has small sweptback mid-mounted stubwings with four suspension units. Countermeasures pods are mounted on the wingtips. The helicopter's weapons systems are selected according to the requirements of the combat mission. The helicopter can be armed with a mixture of air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles, unguided rockets and podded guns. The shells used for the gun and the antitank guided missiles carried on the helicopter are standard ordnance used by land forces and therefore the logistics of rearming quickly in forward bases is simplified.
Integrated surveillance and fire control system
The integrated surveillance and fire control system has two optical channels providing wide and narrow fields of view and a narrow field of view optical television channel. The system can move within 110 degrees in azimuth and from +13 to -40 degrees in elevation. The gun moves in the same range and in synchronisation with the fire control system. The surveillance and fire control system incorporates a built in laser range finder which provides the target range data to the airborne digital computer for computation of the firing parameters for the gun and for the launch of the unguided rockets. The data is also downloaded from the laser range finder for the launch of the guided missiles and the selection of the optimum launch trajectory.
The Mi-28N Night Havoc helicopter is armed with Shturm and Ataka anti-tank missiles both supplied by the Machinery Design Bureau based in the Moscow Region of Russia. Up to 16 anti-tank missiles can be mounted on the helicopter. Shturm is a short-range radio command-guided missile. The Ataka missile's guidance is by narrow radar beam which has proven robustness against hostile jamming and countermeasures. The maximum range of the missile is 8 kilometres. In real combat situations over broken terrain the average target range is between 3 and 6 kilometres. The target hit probability of the Ataka missile is higher than 0.96 at ranges 3 to 6 kilometres. The kill probability against heavily armoured targets is also close to unity. The missile has a shaped charge warhead with a tandem charge for penetration of 950 to 1000 mm thick homogeneous armour and also multilayer and explosive armour.
Air to air missiles
The helicopter can launch fire-and-forget air to air missiles with independent self homing systems.
The helicopter can also carry four containers each with twenty 80 mm unguided rockets (total eighty 80 mm rockets) or with five 122 mm rockets (total twenty 122 mm rockets). The helicopter can alternatively carry containers with grenade launchers, 23 mm guns, 12.7 and 7.62 machine guns, aerial bombs and incendiary tanks.
The helicopter is equipped with a turreted 30 mm cannon, the 2A42. The gun mount is stabilised in two planes. A firing unit is installed between two faired cartridge housings mounted directly on the gun carriage. The gun is fed selectively from the cartridge housings. The firing calculator device provides high firing precision at all angles of rotation of the gun. The weight of one round of ammunition is 1,000 grams. The cannon provides a muzzle velocity of 1,000 metres per second.
|Main rotor diameter||17.2 metres|
|Length with rotating rotors||21.16 m|
|Wing span||7.3 metres|
|Normal takeoff weight||10,400kg|
|Maximum takeoff weight||11,500 kg|
|Weight of normal consumable combat load||638 kg|
|Maximum weight of consumable combat load||1,605 kg|
|two TV3-117VMA engines||2 x 2,200 h.p.|
|Non-retractable tricycle nosewheel type landing gear|
|Maximum flight speed||282 km/hr|
|Cruise speed||260 km/hr|
|Hovering ceiling||3,450 metres|
|Service ceiling||5,750 metres|
|Range of flight at normal take-off weight||460 km|
|Ferry range with drop tanks attached||1,105 km|
|Antitank guided missiles|
|Radio guided, launch range||8 km|
|Movable gun mount calibre||30 mm|
|Air launched rockets|
|Quantity 80||calibre 80 mm|
|Quantity 20||calibre 130 mm|
|Take off weight||10,500 kg|
|Maximum take off weight||11,500 kg|
|Hover ceiling out of ground effect||3,700 metres|
|Service ceiling||5,700 metres|
|Cruise speed||265 km/hour|
|Maximum flight speed||324 km/hour|
|Flight range with 10% fuel reserve||435 km.|
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